The Importance of the Nervous System

All human beings act on impulse, stimuli and reactions, but you will surely ask yourself: what is behind all this? Who is able to control everything we do? Well it is a kind of information center, which he calls as a nervous system. To know more details, do not stop reading until the end.

What is the nervous system?

The nervous system is specifically all those structures and organs that handle the information of the body, which is made up of cells that are known as neurons, which have the ability to transmit electrical stimuli through a wide network of nerve endings. Although it is an essential system within human physiognomy, it is also present in some animals.

Being an apparatus that transmits electrical and chemical energy, it is able to travel throughout the body, allowing the coordination of movements and actions. But before this panorama, two types of nervous system are distinguished, as they are: the autonomous and the somatic.

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for actions that are involuntary, while the somatic nervous system is responsible for creating the connection that enters the brain and the extremities of the body.

What are the parts of the nervous system?

The central nervous system

This part of the nervous system is present in the spinal cord and brain, where the latter is made up of: the brain that controls all actions that are voluntary; the cerebellum, responsible for coordinating body movements and reflexes; the medulla oblongata, which supervises the activities performed by internal organs; and the spinal cord that joins the brain, spreading throughout the body through the spine.

Peripheral nervous system

This division of the nervous system unifies all the nerves that secrete from the central nervous system and are directed throughout the body. It is mainly made up of nerve ganglia and nerves that are grouped as follows:

Somatic nervous system: 3 types of nerves are present here: those of a sensitive nature, mixed nerves and motors.

This system is responsible for capturing information that is sensory, using sensors of the same nature, which are watered by the body to subsequently send the information to the central nervous system.

If you want to know more about the peripheral nervous system, we have another article specially dedicated to it.

Vegetative or autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are included. The first is responsible for preparing the body to act against the stimuli, activating it automatically for the answers. And the second, seeks to maintain the activation of the entire internal state, either decreasing or increasing its activity.

How does the nervous system work?

The main action is carried out by the brain, where it proceeds to send messages through the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system in order to control the movements that the muscles can make, as well as the functioning of the internal organs.

After that, everything focuses on the work of the neuron, which is nothing more than a cellular structure with a nucleus and specialized extensions. And if you didn't know, the brain has more than 100 billion neurons.

That is where the neurons communicate with each other. Therefore, upon receiving the message from another neuron in front of the stimulus, an electrical signal is sent throughout the body. The neurotransmitters move and resend another electrical signal.

This signal travels again through the neuron until it becomes a signal of another type, a chemical signal, to reach nearby neurons. Subsequently, motor neurons carry the message to the brain in order to maintain control of voluntary movements; while sensory neurons capture all the details in relation to sounds, taste, light, pressure and even heat, so they immediately notify the brain.

On the other hand, other involuntary processes that participate in the process are also regulated, such as the release of hormones, in the case of adrenaline, dilation of the eyes before the light or regulation in the digestive system.

It should be noted that the brain is intelligently made up of thousands of communicating neurons, which work together to send messages to the body without losing any detail. Undoubtedly, it is a kind of computer perfectly designed to stay alert, even when the body is in a state of rest, away from stimuli or simply asleep.

What are the functions of the nervous system?

As we have already been able to analyze, the nervous system's main job is to create the connection of the centers that process the nerves, as is the case of the brain, limbs or other internal organs present in the body.

All this also allows the muscular activity to be activated, which brings as a response the movement, whether voluntary; such as walking or taking an objective, as well as the involuntary, which is mostly reflected in breathing, heart rate or blood flow.

On the other hand, the nervous system is also responsible for:

• Control the cycle of sleep, hunger and thirst.

• Regularize the body's natural temperature.

• Control thoughts and emotions.

• Strengthen the ability to memorize and learn.

• Monitor movements, balance and coordination.

• Decipher the information perceived through the 5 senses.

• Regularize the pulse and digestive process.

• Examine emotional physical reactions.